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Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe

wanda aka wallafa • Wanda aka canza zuwa

Tarihin tsohon shugaban kasar Zimbabwe Marigari Robert Mugabe

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Tsohon shugaban kasar Zimbabwe Marigayi Robert Mugabe REUTERS/Siphiwe Sibeko

Marigayi Robert Gabriel Mugabe wanda aka Haifa a yankin Kutama, na kudancin Rhodesia (kasar Zimbabwe a yanzu) ranar 21 ga watan Fabarairun 1924 ya yi kaurin suna ne sanadiyyar kakkarfar kiyayyar da ya nuna ga turawan mulkin mallaka bayan gwagwarmayarsa ta neman ‘yanci.


Haihuwar Mugabe ta zo ne watanni kalilan bayan komawar yankinsu karkashin kulawar Birtaniya matakin da ya tilasta takaitawa al’ummar yankin matakin karatu baya ga ayyukan yi.

Mahaifin Mugabe wanda kafinta ne, ya bar kasar zuwa Afrika ta kudu don gudanar da wasu ayyuka amma bai dawo ba, matakin da ya sanya mahifiyarsa wadda malamar makaranta ce daukar nauyin dawainiyarsa da sauran ‘yan uwansa 3 ta fuskar karatu da ciyarwa ko da dai tun a wancan lokaci Robert Mugabe kan yi sana'ar kiwo don samun kudi.

Karkashin tsarin Birtaniya a Yankin na kudancin Rhodesia da ke matsayin Zimbabwe a yanzu, al’ummar yankin na da zarafin koyon harshen turanci ne kawai amma Mugabe ya samu zarafin halartar makarantar mabiya addinin Kirista da ke yawon yada addini ta O’Hea, inda kuma ya samu cikakken ilimi.

Bayan gano hazakarsa da Malaman makarantar ta O'Hea suka yi ne, suka bashi cikakken horon shekaru 9 da ya bashi damar zama malami a makarantar kafin daga bisani ya tafi Jami'ar Fort Hare da ke kasar Afrika ta kudu inda ya yi digiri a sashen turancin Ingilishi da Tarihi a shekarar 1951 daga nan ne kuma ya koma kasarsa don ci gaba da koyarwa kafin daga bisani a shekarar 1953 ya sake samun digiri a sashen koyarwa karkashin tsarin karatu daga gida.

A shekarar 1955 Mugabe ya koma Arewacin Rhodesia, inda ya yi wani horo na shekaru 4 a kwalejin Chalimbana dai dai wannan lokacin kuma yana ci gaba da karatun digirinsa a bangaren tattalin arziki da jami’ar London shima dai karkashin tsarin karatu daga gida, inda ya kammala a shekarar 1958 bayan komawarsa Ghana.

Mugabe ya kuma yi karatu a kwalejin horar da malamai ta St. Mary inda a nan ne ma ya hadu da matarsa suka kuma yi aure a shekarar 1961.

SIYASAR MUGABE

A shekarar 1960 lokacin wani hutu da Mugabe ya je kasarsa daga Ghana, ya samu al’amura sun sauya, inda dubun dubatar bakaken fata suka rasa matsugunai karkashin wani tsarin turawan mulkin mallaka, yayinda ya samu Fararen fata sun kara yawa a kasar.

Sabon tsarin na Turawa dai ya harzuka bakar fata a kasar matakin da ya haddasa zanga-zangar mutane akalla dubu 7 wadanda suke kalubalantar matakin kin baiwa bakar fata cikakkun mukamai ko da dai a wancan lokaci Mugabe da kansa na goyon bayan kin damkawa bakar fata cikakken mulki duk kuwa da cewa yana adawa da jagorancin farar fata.

Yayin zanga-zangar wadda ta kai ga arangama da jami’an tsaro Mugabe ya bukaci masu fafutukar neman ‘yancin kasar da su kasance masu bin lamarin sannu a hankali bisa gwada musu misali da yadda Ghana ta yi nasara a samun ‘yancinta.

Makwanni kalilan bayan komawar Mugabe Ghana ne aka nada shi sakataren Jam’iyyar NDP mukamin da ya bashi damar kafa tawagar matasa don wayar da kan al’ummar Rhodesia game da fafutukar neman ‘yancin kai.

Sai dai bayan da gwamnatin Ghana ta haramta waccan Jam’iyya a shekarar 1961 dubban magoya bayanta sun nemi hada karfi don samar da jam’iyya irinta ta farko a Rhodesia karkashin Robert Mogabe watta aka sanyawa sunan ZAPU mai rajin hadin kan al’ummar Zimbabwe wadda a tashin farko ta ke da mambobi dubu dari hudu da hamsin.

Duk dai ashekarar Joshua Nkoma da ke matsayin jagoran jam’iyyar ta ZAPU ya yi wata ganawa da wakilan Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don ganin Turawa sun janye daga yankin amma abu yaci tura, hakan ya harzuka Mugabe inda cikin watan Aprilun shekarar ta 1961 ya yi wata sanarwar inda cikin taron jama’a ya bayyana cewa lokaci ya yi da turawa za su bar yankin su kuma muka ragamar gudanarwarsa a hannun bakar fata, wanda hakan ke nufin yiwuwar fuskantar yaki.

Sai dai a shekarar 1963 Mugabe ya jagoranci kafa jam’iyyar ZANU a Zimbabwe wadda ke da manufa daya da ZAPU amma kuma bayan komawarsa kudancin Rhodesia sai jami’an tsaro suka kame shi tare da jefa shi a yari hakan yasa daga gidan yarin yake ci gaba da tsare-tsaren karfafa jam’iyyar tareda bore ga farar fata.

A shekarar 1974 Firaminista Ian Smith, wanda ya sanya bakar fata da dama a jagorancinsa ya bayar da damar sakin Mugabe daga Yari tare da bashi damar halartar wani taro a Arewacin Rhodesia wato Zambia a yanzu amma kuma sai ya sulale tare da koma iyakar kudancin Rhodesia inda a nan ake hada dakaru na musamman wadanda za su yaki turawa daga kasar wanda kuma daga nan ne yaki ya faro har zuwa 1980 da turawa suka ficewa kasar kuma ta samu ‘yanci aka kuma mayar da sunan ta Zimbabwe.

Makwanni kalilan bayan nasarar hambarar da mulkin turawa ne aka amince da nada Mugabe a matsayin shugaban kasa, yayinda kafin shekarar 1989 ya yi nasarar farfado da kasar wadda ta fuskanci mashassharar tattalin arziki.

Kafin karewar wa’adinsa na farko a shekarar 1994 Mugabe yayi nasarar gina makarantu asibitoci har ma da kamfanoni baya ga bunkasa harkar noma da ke matsayin babbar sana’ar al’ummar yankin.

A shekarar 1996 ne Mugabe ya kaddamar da wani shirin kwace gonakin fararen fata tare da mayar da su hannun bakake ba tare da biyan diyya ba, matakin da ya janyo masa suka daga ketare.

A shekarar 2008, bayan gudanar da zaben kasar Mugabe yaki amincewa da kayen da ya sha a hannun Morgan Tsvangirai jagoran jam’iyyar adawa ta MDC takaddamar da ta haddasa gagarumin rikici tare da zubar da jinin jama’a.

Ranar 19 ga watan Nuwamban 2017 ne Robert Mugabe ya sanar da murabus dinsa bisa tilasci.

A jiya Juma’a ne kuma 6 ga watan Satumban 2019 Robert Mugabe mai shekaru 95 a duniya ya mutu a asibitin Gleneagles da ke Singapore bayan shafe tsawon watanni yana jinya.